Английский язык. Составитель Кожевникова

в каталог

Вариант 1 Вариант 2 Вариант 3 Вариант 4 Вариант 5

I вариант
I. Перепишите следующие предложения. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием -s; и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е. служит ли оно:
а) показателем 3-го лица единственного числа в Present Indefinite;
б) признаком множественного числа имени существительного;
в) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного.
Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1.    My father's sister works in the hospital.
2.    Every week he visits his parents.
3.    His friend studies at the University.

II. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения и переведите их на русский язык.
1.    Ann is the best student in our group.
2.    The Baltic Sea is not so warm as the Black Sea.
3.    The more you read, the more you know.

III. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждой из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
a)    1. They have already translated this text.
2. They are testing the machine now.
b)    1. I was told to wait the reception room.
2. The child is often left home alone.

IV. Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните Participle1 и Participle2иустановите функцию каждого из них,т.е является ли оно определением,обстоятельством или частью сказуемого.Переведите на русский язык.
1.    Crossing the bridge, the tourists admired the river.
2.    The question discussed was very interesting.
3.    The man working in the garden is my brother.
4.    While doing this work he knew a lot of new things.

V. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1.    We were to meet at 5 o'clock yesterday.
2.    I can translate this article without dictionary.
3.    We had to walk home because the last bus had gone.

VI. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на бессоюзное подчинение.
1.    The amount of vitamins A and D in the egg depends on the feed the ben gets.
2.    Products higher in saturated fats can generally be stored for a longer time.

VII. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива в предложениях.
1.    To use dried buttermilk is common practice in baking industry.
2.    To prevent milk from spoilage harmless bacteria are added.
3.    In most cheese lactose continues to be fermented to lactic acid and lactates, it is hydrolyzed to form other sugars.
4.    The purpose of concentrated milk foods production is to supply cookery with nonfat dry milk.

VIII. Прочитать и письменно переведите текст.
Cheese production.
Cheese is a dairy product derived from milk that is produced in a wide range of flavors, textures, and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein. It comprises proteins and fat from milk, usually the milk of cows, buffalo, goats, or sheep. During production, the milk is usually acidified, and adding the enzyme rennet causes coagulation. The solids are separated and pressed into final form. Some cheeses have molds on the rind, the outer layer, or throughout. Most cheeses melt at cooking temperature.
Over a thousand types of cheese from various countries are produced. Their styles, textures and flavors depend on the origin of the milk (including the animal's diet), whether they have been pasteurized, the butterfat content, the bacteria and mold, the processing, and aging. Herbs, spices, or wood smoke may be used as flavoring agents. The yellow to red color of many cheeses, such as Red Leicester, is produced by adding annatto. Other ingredients may be added to some cheeses, such as black pepper, garlic, chives or cranberries.
For a few cheeses, the milk is curdled by adding acids such as vinegar or lemon juice. Most cheeses are acidified to a lesser degree by bacteria, which turn milk sugars into lactic acid, then the addition of rennet completes the curdling. Vegetarian alternatives to rennet are available; most are produced by fermentation of the fungus Mucor miehei, but others have been extracted from various species of the Cynara thistle family. Cheesemakers near a dairy region may benefit from fresher, lower-priced milk, and lower shipping costs.
Cheese is valued for its portability, long life, and high content of fat, protein, calcium, and phosphorus. Cheese is more compact and has a longer shelf life than milk, although how long a cheese will keep depends on the type of cheese; labels on packets of cheese often claim that a cheese should be consumed within three to five days of opening. Generally speaking, hard cheeses, such as Parmesan last longer than soft cheeses, such as Brie or goat's milk cheese. The long storage life of some cheeses, especially when encased in a protective rind, allows selling when markets are favorable.
There is some debate as to the best way to store cheese, but some experts say that wrapping it in cheese paper provides optimal results. Cheese paper is coated in a porous plastic on the inside, and the outside has a layer of wax. This specific combination of plastic on the inside and wax on the outside protects the cheese by allowing condensation on the cheese to be wicked away while preventing moisture from within the cheese escaping. 
A specialist seller of cheese is sometimes known as a cheesemonger. Becoming an expert in this field requires some formal education and years of tasting and hands-on experience, much like becoming an expert in wine or cuisine. The cheesemonger is responsible for all aspects of the cheese inventory: selecting the cheese menu, purchasing, receiving, storage, and ripening.

IX. Найдите в тексте значения следующих слов и словосочетаний.
1.    Молочный продукт
2.    свертывание
3.    включать, содержать, заключать в себе
4.    плесень на кожуре
5.    зависеть от чего-либо
6.    срок хранения
7.    защитная кожура
8.    упаковка
9.    сыровар 
10.    практический опыт


II вариант

I. Перепишите следующие предложения. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием -s; и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е. служит ли оно:
а) показателем 3-го лица единственного числа в Present Indefinite;
б) признаком множественного числа имени существительного;
в) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного.
Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1.    All my son's friends are students.
2.    My mother lives in the country.
3.    Every year she visits her relatives.

II. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения и переведите их на русский язык.
1.    My brother is not so tall as you are.
2.    Winter is the coldest season of the year.
3.    The less people think, the more they talk.

III. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните в каждой из них глагол-сказуемое и определите видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
a) 1. They were working all the evening yesterday.
        2. They have visited many places of interest during their traveling.
b) 1. This dinner is cooked by my sister.
2. My father was operated yesterday.

IV. Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните Participle 1 и Participle 2 и установите функцию каждого из них, т.е. является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью сказуемого. Переведите на русский язык.
1.    When done this work will give good results.
2.    The girl playing chess with her friend is a student of our group.
3.    The experiments made at our laboratory are very interesting.
4.    Walking in the forest I enjoyed fresh air.

V. Перепишите следующие предложения. Подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1.    They can do this work themselves.
2.    They were allowed to use dictionaries at the lesson.
3.    He had to take a taxi, because it was too late.

VI. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на бессоюзное подчинение.
1.    We were sure we should succeed in introducing the new flavours to the market.
2.    The young engineer is sure the professor will give him some valuable advice.

VII. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива в предложениях.
1.    Milk is often pasteurized to destroy pathogenic microorganisms and to eliminate spoilage and defects induced by bacteria.
2.    The main problem of the Sundae-style yogurt production is to place and keep fruit at the bottom of the cup.
3.    To obtain condensed milk water should be partially removed from the mixture of milk and suitable sweetener.
4.    The total solid content to be reached in buttermilk is 12.0-13.5 percent.

VIII. Прочитать и письменно переведите текст.
Curdling.
A required step in cheesemaking is separating the milk into solid curds and liquid whey. Usually this is done by acidifying (souring) the milk and adding rennet. The acidification can be accomplished directly by the addition of an acid, such as vinegar, in a few cases (paneer, queso fresco). More commonly starter bacteria are employed instead which convert milk sugars into lactic acid. The same bacteria (and the enzymes they produce) also play a large role in the eventual flavor of aged cheeses. Most cheeses are made with starter bacteria from the Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, or Streptococcus families. Swiss starter cultures also include Propionibacter shermani, which produces carbon dioxide gas bubbles during aging, giving Swiss cheese or Emmental its holes (called "eyes").
Some fresh cheeses are curdled only by acidity, but most cheeses also use rennet. Rennet sets the cheese into a strong and rubbery gel compared to the fragile curds produced by acidic coagulation alone. It also allows curdling at a lower acidity—important because flavor-making bacteria are inhibited in high-acidity environments. In general, softer, smaller, fresher cheeses are curdled with a greater proportion of acid to rennet than harder, larger, longer-aged varieties.
While rennet was traditionally produced via extraction from the inner mucosa of the fourth stomach chamber of slaughtered young, unweaned calves, most rennet used today in cheesemaking is produced recombinantly. The majority of the applied chymosin is retained in the whey and, at most, may be present in cheese in trace quantities. In ripe cheese, the type and provenance of chymosin used in production cannot be determined.

IX. Найдите в тексте значения следующих слов и словосочетаний.
1.    Разделение молока
2.    твердый творог
3.    жидкая сыворотка
4.    подкисление, окисление
5.    добавление сычуга
6.    могут быть выполнены
7.    вкус выдержанного сыра
8.    швейцарские стартовые культуры
9.    пузырьки углекислого газа
10.     свертывание


 

III вариант

I. Перепишите следующие предложения. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием -s; и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е. служит ли оно:
а) показателем 3-го лица единственного числа в Present Indefinite;
б) признаком множественного числа имени существительного;
в) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного.
Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1.    My sister studies English at the University.
2.    There are many new houses in the streets of our city.
3.    Peter's mother spends much time at her scientific studies.
II. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения и переведите их на русский язык.
1.    The Alpes are the highest mountains in Europe.
2.    It is one of most important questions of our conference.
3.    Better late than never.
III. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните в каждой из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
a) 1. They have already forgotten this story.
    2. He is speaking to his friend at this moment.
b) 1. New subjects will be studied next year.
    2. These toys are made by their children.

IV. Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните Participle 1 и Participle 2 и установите функцию каждого из них, т.е. является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью сказуемого. Переведите на русский язык.
1.    Freezing water loses its properties of a liquid.
2.    When given the book read the article about environmental protection.
3.    The sky is covered with clouds.
4.    They are discussing a very important problem now.
V. Перепишите следующие предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1.    He was allowed to take part in the work of this conference.
2.    She can not speak any foreign language.
3.    I had to stay home because of my illness.
VI. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на бессоюзное подчинение.
1.    Many things we use in everyday life are made from plants.
2.    The students tell the professor  are ready to begin the experiment.
VII. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива в предложениях.
1.    It is necessary to add alkaline substances to sour cream in the process of butter making.
2.    To convert lactose into lactic acid is the main purpose of both Streptococeus and Lactobacillus bacteria.
3.    The usual ratios to be maintained between two types of bacteria in the inoculum are 1:1 or 1:3.
4.    Today manufactures add food colouring throughout the year to ensure a consistent colour.
VIII. Прочитать и письменно переведите текст.
Biscuit.
A biscuit is a flour-based baked food product. In North America, a biscuit is typically a soft, leavened quick bread, 
Early biscuits were hard, dry, and unsweetened. They were most often cooked after bread, in a cooling bakers' oven; they were a cheap form of sustenance for the poor.
By the seventh century AD, cooks of the Persian empire had learnt from their forebears the techniques of  lightening and enriching bread-based mixtures with eggs, butter, and cream, and sweetening them with fruit and honey. One of the earliest spiced biscuits was gingerbread, in French, pain d'épices, meaning "spice bread", brought to Europe in 992 by the Armenian monk Grégoire de Nicopolis. He left Nicopolis Pompeii, of Lesser Armenia to live in Bondaroy, France, near the town of  Pithiviers. He stayed there for seven years and taught French priests and Christians how to cook gingerbread. This was originally dense, treaclely (molasses-based) spice cake or bread. As it was so expensive to make, early ginger biscuits were a cheap form of using up the leftover bread mix.
Biscuits today can be savoury or sweet, but most are small at around 5 cm (2.0 in) in diameter, and flat. The term biscuit also applies to sandwich-type biscuits, wherein a layer of "creme" or icing is sandwiched between two biscuits, such as the custard cream, or a layer of jam 
Sweet biscuits are commonly eaten as a snack food, and are, in general, made with wheat flour or oats, and sweetened with sugar or honey. Varieties may contain chocolate, fruit, jam, nuts, ginger, or even be used to sandwich other fillings.
The digestive biscuit and rich tea have a strong identity in British culture as the traditional accompaniment to a cup of tea and are regularly eaten as such. Some tea drinkers "dunk" biscuits in tea, allowing them to absorb liquid and soften slightly before consumption. Chocolate digestives, Rich tea, and Hobnobs were ranked the UK's top three favourite dunking biscuits in 2009, with custard creams coming third in a non-dunking poll.
Savoury biscuits or crackers (such as cream crackers, water biscuits, oatcakes, or crisp breads) are usually plainer and commonly eaten with cheese following a meal. Many savoury biscuits also contain additional ingredients for flavour or texture, such as poppy seeds, onion or onion seeds, cheese (such as cheese melts), and olives. Savoury biscuits also usually have a dedicated section in most European supermarkets, often in the same aisle as sweet biscuits. The exception to savoury biscuits is the sweetmeal digestive known as the "Hovis biscuit", which, although slightly sweet, is still classified as a cheese biscuit. Savoury biscuits sold in supermarkets are sometimes associated with a certain geographical area, such as Scottish oatcakes or Cornish wafer biscuits.
In general, the British, Australians, South Africans, New Zealanders, Indians, Pakistanis, Sri Lankans, Singaporeans, Nigerians, Kenyans, and the Irish use the British meaning of "biscuit" for the sweet biscuit, the terms biscuit and cookie are used interchangeably, depending on the region and the speaker, with biscuits usually referring to hard, sweet biscuits (such as digestives, Nice, Bourbon creams, etc.) and cookies for soft baked goods (i.e. chocolate chip cookies).

IX. Найдите в тексте значения следующих слов и словосочетаний.
1.    Первоначально плотный
2.    патока 
3.    оставшаяся хлебная смесь 
4.    ароматный
5.    заварной крем
6.    диетическое печенье
7.    тройка самых любимых британских бисквитов
8.    несладкие бисквиты
9.    шотландские овсяные лепешки
10.     взаимозаменяемо, равнозначно


IVвариант
1. Перепишите следующие предложения. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием -s; и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е. служит ли оно:
а) показателем 3-го лица единственного числа в Present Indefinite;
б) признаком множественного числа имени существительного;
в) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного.
Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1.    All my son's friends are students.
2.    My mother lives in the country.
3.    Every year she visits her relatives.
II. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения и переведите их на русский язык.
1.    My brother is not so tall as you are.
2.    Winter is the coldest season of the year.
3.    The less people think, the more they talk.

III. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните в каждой из них глагол-сказуемое и определите видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
a) 1. They were working all the evening yesterday.
     2. They have visited many places of interest during their traveling.
b) 1. This dinner is cooked by my sister.
     2. My father was operated yesterday.
IV. Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните Participle 1 и Participle 2 и установите функцию каждого из них, т.е. является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью сказуемого. Переведите на русский язык.
1.    When done this work will give good results.
2.    The girl playing chess with her friend is a student of our group.
3.    The experiments made at our laboratory are very interesting.
4.    Walking in the forest I enjoyed fresh air.
V. Перепишите следующие предложения. Подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1.    They can do this work themselves.
2.    They were allowed to use dictionaries at the lesson.
3.    He had to take a taxi, because it was too late.
VI. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на бессоюзное подчинение.
1.    We were sure we should succeed in introducing the new flavours to the market.
2.    The young engineer is sure the professor will give him some valuable advice.
VII. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива в предложениях.
1.    Milk is often pasteurized to destroy pathogenic microorganisms and to eliminate spoilage and defects induced by bacteria.
2.    The main problem of the Sundae-style yogurt production is to place and keep fruit at the bottom of the cup.
3.    To obtain condensed milk water should be partially removed from the mixture of milk and suitable sweetener.
4.    The total solid content to be reached in buttermilk is 12.0-13.5 percent.
VIII. Прочитать и письменно переведите текст.
Chocolate.
Chocolate is a usually sweet, brown food preparation of roasted and ground cacao seeds that is made in the form of a liquid, paste, or in a block, or used as a flavoring ingredient in other foods. The earliest evidence of use traces to the Olmecs (Mexico), with evidence of chocolate beverages dating to 1900 BC. The majority of Mesoamerican people made chocolate beverages, including the Maya and Aztecs. The word "chocolate" is derived from the Classical Nahuatl word chocolātl. 
The seeds of the cacao tree have an intense bitter taste and must be fermented to develop the flavor. After fermentation, the beans are dried, cleaned, and roasted. The shell is removed to produce cacao nibs, which are then ground to cocoa mass, unadulterated chocolate in rough form. Once the cocoa mass is liquefied by heating, it is called chocolate liquor. The liquor also may be cooled and processed into its two components: cocoa solids and cocoa butter. Baking chocolate, also called bitter chocolate, contains cocoa solids and cocoa butter in varying proportions, without any added sugar. Powdered baking cocoa, which contains more fiber than it contains cocoa butter, can be processed with alkali to produce dutch cocoa. Much of the chocolate consumed today is in the form of sweet chocolate, a combination of cocoa solids, cocoa butter or added vegetable oils, and sugar. Milk chocolate is sweet chocolate that additionally contains milk powder or condensed milk. White chocolate contains cocoa butter, sugar, and milk, but no cocoa solids.
Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world, and many foodstuffs involving chocolate exist, particularly desserts, including cakes, pudding, mousse, chocolate brownies, and chocolate chip cookies. Many candies are filled with or coated with sweetened chocolate, and bars of solid chocolate and candy bars coated in chocolate are eaten as snacks. Gifts of chocolate molded into different shapes (such as eggs, hearts, coins) are traditional on certain Western holidays, including Christmas, Easter, Valentine's Day, and Hanukkah. Chocolate is also used in cold and hot beverages, such as chocolate milk and hot chocolate, and in some alcoholic drinks, such as creme de cacao.
Although cocoa originated in the Americas, West African countries, particularly Côte d'Ivoire and Ghana, are the leading producers of cocoa in the 21st century, accounting for some 60% of the world cocoa supply.
With some two million children involved in the farming of cocoa in West Africa, child slavery and trafficking were major concerns in 2018. However, international attempts to improve conditions for children were failing because of persistent poverty, absence of schools, increasing world cocoa demand, more intensive farming of cocoa, and continued exploitation of child labor.

IX. Найдите в тексте значения следующих слов и словосочетаний.
1.    Жареные и молотые семена какао
2.    прослеживать, отследить
3.    шоколадные напитки
4.    получать, извлекать
5.    какао-бобы
6.    натуральный шоколад
7.    потребляемый
8.    растительное масло, растительный жир
9.    сгущенное молоко
10.     сохраняющаяся нищета, постоянная бедность
11.    мировые поставки какао


V вариант
I. Перепишите следующие предложения. Определите по грамматическим признакам, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием -s; и какую функцию это окончание выполняет, т.е. служит ли оно:
а) показателем 3-го лица единственного числа в Present Indefinite;
б) признаком множественного числа имени существительного;
в) показателем притяжательного падежа имени существительного.
Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1.    All my son's friends are students.
2.    My mother lives in the country.
3.    Every year she visits her relatives.
II. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения и переведите их на русский язык.
1.    My brother is not so tall as you are.
2.    Winter is the coldest season of the year.
3.    The less people think, the more they talk.
III. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните в каждой из них глагол-сказуемое и определите видовременную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
a) 1. They were working all the evening yesterday.
     2. They have visited many places of interest during their traveling.
b) 1. This dinner is cooked by my sister.
2. My father was operated yesterday.
IV. Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните Participle1 и Participle2иустановите функцию каждого из них, т.е. является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью сказуемого. Переведите на русский язык.
1.    When done this work will give good results.
2.    The girl playing chess with her friend is a student of our group.
3.    The experiments made at our laboratory are very interesting.
4.    Walking in the forest I enjoyed fresh air.
V. Перепишите следующие предложения. Подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1.    They can do this work themselves.
2.    They were allowed to use dictionaries at the lesson.
3.    He had to take a taxi, because it was too late.
VI. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на бессоюзное подчинение.
1.    We were sure we should succeed in introducing the new flavours to the market.
2.    The young engineer is sure the professor will give him some valuable advice.
VII. Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на функцию инфинитива в предложениях.
1.    Milk is often pasteurized to destroy pathogenic microorganisms and to eliminate spoilage and defects induced by bacteria.
2.    The main problem of the Sundae-style yogurt production is to place and keep fruit at the bottom of the cup.
3.    To obtain condensed milk water should be partially removed from the mixture of milk and suitable sweetener.
4.    The total solid content to be reached in buttermilk is 12.0-13.5 percent.
VIII. Прочитать и письменно переведите текст.
Sausage.
A sausage is a cylindrical meat product usually made from ground meat, often pork, beef, or veal, along with salt, spices and other flavourings, and breadcrumbs, encased by a skin. Typically, a sausage is formed in a casing traditionally made from intestine, but sometimes from synthetic materials. Sausages that are sold raw are cooked in many ways, including pan-frying, broiling and barbecuing. Some sausages are cooked during processing and the casing may then be removed.
Sausage making is a traditional food preservation technique. Sausages may be preserved by curing, drying (often in association with fermentation or culturing, which can contribute to preservation), smoking, or freezing. Some cured or smoked sausages can be stored without refrigeration. Most fresh sausages must be refrigerated or frozen until they are cooked.
Sausages come in a huge range of national and regional varieties, which differ by their flavouring or spicing ingredients (garlic, peppers, wine, etc.), the meat(s) used in them and their manner of preparation.
A sausage consists of meat cut into pieces or ground, mixed with other ingredients, and filled into a casing. Ingredients may include a cheap starch filler such as breadcrumbs, seasoning and flavourings such as spices, and sometimes others such as apple and leek. The meat may be from any animal, but is often pork, beef, or veal. The lean meat-to-fat ratio depends upon the style and producer. The meat content as labelled may exceed 100%; which happens when the weight of meat exceeds the total weight of the sausage after it has been made, sometimes including a drying process which reduces water content.
In some jurisdictions foods described as sausages must meet regulations governing their content. For example, in the United States The Department of Agriculture specifies that the fat content of different defined types of sausage may not exceed 30%, 35% or 50% by weight; some sausages may contain binders or extenders. 
Many traditional styles of sausage from Asia and mainland Europe use no bread-based filler and include only meat (lean meat and fat) and flavorings. In the United Kingdom and other countries with English cuisine traditions, many sausages contain a significant proportion of bread and starch-based fillers, which may comprise 30% of ingredients. The filler in many sausages helps them to keep their shape as they are cooked. As the meat contracts in the heat, the filler expands and absorbs moisture and fat from the meat. 
When the food processing industry produces sausages for a low price point, almost any part of the animal can end up in sausages, varying from cheap, fatty specimens stuffed with meat blasted off the carcasses (mechanically recovered meat, MRM) and rusk. On the other hand, the finest quality contain only choice cuts of meat and seasoning. In Britain, "meat" declared on labels could in the past include fat, connective tissue, and MRM. These ingredients may still be used, but must be labelled as such, and up to 10% water may be included without being labelled. 
Sausages are emulsion-type products. They are composed of solid fat globules, dispersed in protein solution. The proteins function by coating the fat and stabilizing them in water.

IX. Найдите в тексте значения следующих слов и словосочетаний.
1.    Заключенный в оболочку
2.    изготовленный из кишки 
3.    поджаривание 
4.    оболочка
5.    вяление
6.    колбасы вяленые или копченые
7.    дешевый крахмальный наполнитель
8.    телятина
9.    содержать связующие вещества или наполнители
10.    приправы
11.    значительная доля
12.    должен быть маркирован

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