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Английский К/Р №4

в начало

Контрольная работа № 4

Вариант 1

Вариант 2

Вариант 3

Вариант 4

Вариант 5


Variant I

Ex. 1. Read and translate the text. Pay attention to the vocabulary.

        The anatomy of domestic animals and sciences connected with it.


 Anatomy is the branch which deals with the form and structure of the principal domestic animals. To understand the structure of the organism in light of the connection between form and function, anatomy uses the data of physiology. Two chief methods of study are employed – systematic and topographic. In the former the body is regarded as consisting of systems of organs or apparatus which are similar in origin and structure and are associated in the performance of certain functions. The approach of systematic anatomy is to divide the organism artificially into parts using the analytical method. The divisions of systematic anatomy are:

1) Osteology (Osteologia), the description of the skeleton;

2) Arthrology (Arlhrologia), the description of the joints;

3) Myology (Myologia); the description of the muscles and accessory structures;

4) Splanchnology (Splanchnologia), the description of the viscera. It includes the following subdivisions:

4.1) Digestive system (Apparatus digestorius);

4.2) Respiratory system (Apparatus respiratorius);

4.3) Urogenital system (Apparatus urogenitalis):

a) urinary organs (Organa uropoetica),

b) genital organs (Organa genitalia);

5) Angiology, the description of the organs of circulation;

6) Neurology, the description of the Nervous system;

7) Aesthesiology, the description of the sense organs and common integument.            Besides systematic anatomy there is topographic anatomy which studies the spatial  anatomy designates the methods by which the relative positions of the various parts of the body are accurately determined. It presupposes a fair knowledge of systematic anatomy.

The consideration of anatomical facts in their relation to surgery, physical diagnosis, and other practical branches is termed applied anatomy.

As animal is a part of nature, anatomy, the science studding animal`s structure, is part of biology. Animal body is the complex of living matter. The structure of living matter comprises not only the form but the function, not only the morphological but the functional peculiarities of the organism.

Anatomy that studies the normal healthy organism is called normal anatomy, as distinct from pathological or morbid anatomy, which is concerned with the study of the sick organism and the morbid changes in its organs.

 Anatomy is also related closely to histology, the science of tissues, particularly to the branch of histology known as microscopic anatomy. Histology and cytology, the science of the cell, are considered independent branches of science.

With the invention of the electron microscope, a new science, cytochemistry, was born at the junction of cytology and chemistry. As a result the structure of the animal organism is now studied at different levels: 1) at the level of systems and organs – macroscopic anatomy, micro-macroscopic anatomy, microscopic anatomy; 2) at the level of tissues – histology; 3) at the cellular level – cytology; 4) at the molecular level.

Thus, anatomy and histology are currently divided according to level and technique of examination. Anatomy, histology, cytology and embryology constitute the general science of the form, structure and development of the organism which is called morphology.


osteology ["ɒsti′ɒləʤi] остеология

skeleton [′skələtɒn] скелет

arthrology [a:θ′rɒləʤi] артрология

joint [′dɒɒint] сустав

myology [mai′ɒləʤi] миология

accessory structures [æk′səsəri ′strΛkt∫əz] вспомогательныеструктурыsplanchnology ["splæηk′nɒləʤi] учениеовнутренностях

viscerapl. лат [′visərə] внутренности (кишки)

digestive [di′ʤestiv] пищеварительный

respiratory [ris′paiərətəri] дыхательный

urogenital ["juərɒ′dʒenitəl] мочеполовой

urinary [juə′rinəri] мочевой

genital [′dʒenitəl] половой

angiology ["ændʒi′ɒlədʒi] ангиология

circulation ["sə:kju′lei∫n] циркуляция (крови)

neurology [nju′rɒləʤi] неврология

nervous [′nə:vəs] нервный

aesthesiology [i:s′θezi′ɒlədʒi] эстезиология

senseorgans [′sens′ɒ:gəns] органычувств

integument [in′tegjumənt] кожа, наружныйпокров

surgery [′sə:ʤəri] хирургия

applied [ə′plaid] прикладной

morbid [′mɒ:bid] патологический

tissue [′ti∫u:] ткань

cell [sel] клетка

cellular [′seljulə] клеточный


Ex. 2. Make a review of the article.


Bumblebees benefit from faba bean cultivation


Date: September 10, 2020

Source: University of Göttingen


About one third of payments received by farmers are linked to 'greening measures' to promote biodiversity. These have been criticized because the benefits for biodiversity are unclear. Researchers investigated whether the cultivation of faba beans (Viciafaba - broad bean or fava bean) can support wild bees. They found that bumblebees benefit from cultivating faba beans, while other wild bees depend on semi-natural habitats.

The researchers recorded wild bees in various German agricultural landscapes for the study. In one half of the landscapes, conventionally farmed faba beans were cultivated; in the other half there were no bean fields. "The nectar of the faba bean is hidden deep in the flowers and is only easily accessible to larger bees with long tongues, such as bumblebees. We therefore wanted to investigate how groups of wild bees, which differ in their external appearance, react to the cultivation of faba beans and whether they can benefit from it," says first author Nicole Beyer from the Functional Agrobiodiversity Group at the University of Göttingen. The study results show that there were more than twice as many bumblebees in the faba bean landscapes than in the landscapes without beans. In contrast, the cultivation of beans did not affect other wild bees. However, these other wild bees benefited from a high proportion of semi-natural habitats.

"Our research clearly showed that certain bee species can be supported by similar measures in farmed areas. But the benefits depend strongly on the characteristics of the crop and pollinator. In order to encourage the widest possible range of species, we propose a combination of measures: the cultivation of various flowering arable crops such as faba beans and the promotion or preservation of semi-natural habitats with a diverse range of flowers and nesting sites for many other wild bees," concludes Professor Catrin Westphal, Head of Functional Agrobiodiversity at the University of Göttingen.



  1. Nicole Beyer, Doreen Gabriel, Felix Kirsch, Katharina Schulz‐Kesting, Jens Dauber, Catrin Westphal. Functional groups of wild bees respond differently to faba bean ( Viciafaba L.) cultivation at landscape scaleJournalofAppliedEcology, 2020; DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.13745








Variant II

Ex. 1. Read and translate the text. Pay attention to the vocabulary.

What does the circulatory organs consist of? What is the vascular system?

The circulatory organs consist of the heart, the arteries, the arterioles, the capillaries, the venulae, and the veins. Together they comprise the so-called vascular system. This system is a set of closed tubes beginning and ending at the heart and having only one or two openings. In the mammal there are two circulations, the greater and the lesser, each of which is provided with a heart, but the two hearts are so closely united anatomically that we generally speak of only one heart, dividing it physiologically into the right and left heart.

The heart is the central organ of this system. It is attached at the base to the large blood vessels. The heart pumps the blood through the vessels by strong contractions of the powerful muscles. The average weight of the heart of the horse is 7,5 pounds, of the ox – 5,5 pounds.

The heart is situated in the chest cavity between the lungs in a chamber called the pericardium. This is a double bag, one adherent to the heart itself, while the other envelopes the heart more loosely. Between these two coverings is the pericardial fluid which is a form of lymph.

 The heart has four cavities – the right and the left auricles and the right and the left ventricles. The two cavities of one side are separated from those of the other by a septum of fibromuscular composition that keeps the pure and impure blood from mixing. The right anterior part of the base of the heart is formed by the right auricle. It has orifices for the anterior and posterior venae cavae and in the ventral part the right auriculoventricular orifices which open into the right ventricle. The right ventricle occupies the right anterior of the ventricular mass, but does not reach the apex. It communicates with the pulmonary artery through the pulmonary orifice. The left auricle forms the posterior part of the base of the heart.

The right and left portion of the heart each consists of an auricle and a ventricle. These are divided from one another by a transverse partition and communicate with another by valves which allow the blood to flow in one direction only, namely from the auricle to the ventricle.

The blood is kept in constant circulation through the vessels by the involuntary, rhythmic contractions of the heart which acts as a double pump. The right and left portions of the heart have no direct communication with each other. They work together but independently.


arteriole ['a:təriɒul] артериола

vascular ['vaskju:lə] сосудистый

tube [tju:b] трубка

opening ['əupniŋ] отверстие

vessel [vesl] сосуд

chamber ['t∫eimbə] камерасердца

pericardium [peri'ka:djəm] перикард, околосердечнаясумка

envelope ['envələup] пленка

pericardialfluid [pəri'ka:djem 'flu:id] перекардическаяжидкость

lymph ['limf] лимфа

auricle ['ɒ:rikl] предсердие

ventricle ['ventrikl] желудочек

septum ['septəm] перегородка

fibromuscular ["faibrəu'mΛskjulə] волокнистомускульной

orifice ['ɒrifis] отверстие, выход

venacava ['vi:ni 'kΛvə] полаявена

auriculoventricula [ɒ:ri'kjuləuven'trikjulə] антривентрикулярный

pulmonary ['pΛlmənəri] легочный

fluid ['flu:id] жидкость

partition [pa:'ti∫ən] перегородка

valve [vælv] клапан


Ex. 2. Make a review of the article.

The surprising rhythms of Leopards: Females are early birds, males are nocturnal


Date: September 10, 2020

Source: University of Copenhagen


After 10 months of camera surveillance in the Tanzanian rainforest, researchers have concluded that female and male leopards are active at very different times of the day. The discovery contradicts previous assumptions and could be used to help protect the endangered feline, whose populations have dwindled by 85 percent over the past century.

"I'm the first person to study leopards in this area, simply because it is so inaccessible. It took several pairs of good hiking boots, let me put it that way," says Havmøller, who never actually got to see one of the shy leopards with his own eyes. Instead, he had to "settle" for buffalo and elephants.

While Havmøller never caught a glimpse of a leopard himself, his 164 camera traps most certainly did. Using motion sensors, the cameras captured the leopards, as well as forest antelopes, baboons and other leopard prey on film. Camera observations revealed leopard behaviour that contradicts previous assumptions.

"In the past, leopards were thought to be most active at dusk. Very surprisingly, the study shows that leopards hunt and move around at very different times of the day depending on whether they are females or males," says Rasmus W. Havmøller, who adds:

"Females are typically active from early through late morning, and then a bit before sunset, while males only really wake up at night."

This is the first time that differences in activity patterns between male and female leopards have been studied.

Differences between male and female leopards have only recently begun to be studied, so there is still much to learn about the animal. But researchers need to hurry. Rapidly growing human populations in Africa and India are the greatest threat to these animals, which are forced from their habitats and shot when they near livestock.

"Globally, things are going awfully for leopards, with sharp declines in their populations over the past 100 years. Furthermore, these animals aren't monitored all that well. In part, this is because it is difficult. But also, because there has been a greater focus on species that are even more endangered, including lions, tigers and cheetahs. Therefore, it might be that the leopards in Udzungwa present the last chance to study these creatures in a diversified environment, one that has only been lightly impacted by humans, before they end up becoming highly endangered" explains Rasmus W. Havmøller.

The researcher believes that the results will provide a better understanding of the lives of wild leopards -- an understanding that may help prevent their complete extinction.

"The fact that female leopards are active well into the morning makes them more vulnerable to human activities, since this is when we as humans are most active. To protect something, one needs to have some knowledge about it. During my study, we also discovered that a leopard from the rainforest doesn't move into semi-arid areas or onto the savannah, or vice versa. It's very strange. Why they don't is the next big question," concludes Havmøller.


  1. R. W. Havmøller, N. S. Jacobsen, N. Scharff, F. Rovero, F. Zimmermann. Assessing the activity pattern overlap among leopards ( Pantherapardus ), potential prey and competitors in a complex landscape in TanzaniaJournalofZoology, 2020; 311 (3): 175 DOI: 10.1111/jzo.12774



Variant III

Ex. 1. Read and translate the text. Pay attention to the vocabulary.

What is the arterial system?

The arteries are the tubes that carry the blood from the heart to the tissue. Their walls are thick, strong, and contain much yellow, elastic tissue, which renders them extensible. When empty they do not collapse. Most arteries occupy protected positions and are straight in their course to reduce friction between the flowing blood and the walls of the arteries. Arteries communicate freely with one another, thus promoting equality of distribution and pressure and making free circulation possible even after a large vessel becomes obliterated. A single large vessel, the pulmonary artery, originates from the right ventricle and another, the aorta, from the left ventricle. These large arteries divide into smaller vessels and then in turn into yet smaller ones. The term “arterial system” is given to the arteries as a whole.

The pulmonary artery carries dark or venous blood from the right ventricle to the lungs, where it divides into numerous vessels that ramify in the lung tissue.

 The aorta gives passage to the red or arterial blood from the left ventricle. This blood supplies all the organs of the body except the lungs. It is a short vessel that soon divides into thoracic and abdominal branches.

The common brachiocephalic artery is the thoracic division of the aorta. In the horses it is directed and upward to supply the fore limb, neck, and head.

The posterior aorta is the abdominal division of the aorta. It arches backward and pierces the diaphragm. It supplies branches to the walls and viscera o that connect the latter with the venulae.

The veins conduct the blood back to the heart from the tissues. The capacity of the venous system is two or three times that of the arterial.

The pulmonary veins carry to the left auricle f the abdominal cavity, the body muscles, the udder, the pelvic organs, and the hind limbs.

The capillaries are the minute continuations of the arterioles the blood which has passed through the lungs and has become oxygenated.

The anterior vena cava carries to the right auricle the blood returned from the head and neck by the jugular veins and that from the thoracic limbs.

The posterior vena cava is the largest vein in the body and conveys to the right auricle nearly all the blood from the liver, spleen, intestines, other abdominal and pelvic organs, and the pelvic limbs.

The lymph vessels are provided with simple valves to prevent a backward flow of the lymph. They all end finally in two main trunks which open into the venous system near the base of the heart.

 extensible [iks'tənsibl] растяжимый

friction ['frik∫ən] трение

pressure ['pre∫ə] давление, сжатие

aorta [ei'ɒ:tə] аорта

venous ['vi:nəs] венозный

thoracic [θɒ:'ræsik] грудной

abdominal [æb'dɒminəl] брюшной

brachiocephalic ['bra:nt∫iɒu'sefəlik] плечеголовной

fore [fɒ:] носовой

limb [lim] конечность

arch [a:t∫] дуга, изгиб

wall [wɒ:l] стенка, перегородка

viscera ['visərə] внутренние органы

udd ['Λdə] вымя

pelvic ['pelvik] тазовый

hind [haind] задний

anterior ['æn'tiəriə] передний

jugular ['dʒΛgjulə] яремнаявена (шейная)

posterior [pɒs'tiəriə] задний

liver ['livə] печень

spleen ['spli:n] селезенка

intestine [in'testin] кишечник, кишка

trunk [trΛnk] туловище


Ex. 2. Make a review of the article.

National parks preserve more than species

Study of Costa Rican rainforest shows national parks are more resilient than expected

Date:September 9, 2020

Source:Rice University


National parks are safe havens for endangered and threatened species, but an analysis by data scientists finds parks and protected areas can preserve more than species.



In a study published online this week in the journal Biotropica, Rice ecologists and data scientists Daniel Gorczynski and Lydia Beaudrot used thousands of camera trap photos to assess the large mammal diversity in the protected rainforest of Costa Rica's Braulio Carrillo National Park.

In wildlife conservation, diversity often refers to the variety of species in an ecosystem. But ecologists also study functional diversity, the abundance and variation of traits like body size, diet and reproductive rate. Trait diversity can be measured independent of species diversity and provide additional insight about the overall health of an ecosystem.

In the study, Gorczynski and Beaudrot analyzed more than 4,200 photos of mammals taken in the park between 2007 and 2014 and found the diversity of mammal traits within the park did not decline, despite deforestation that fragmented the forests on more than half of the surrounding private lands.

"It is a bit of a surprise," said Gorczynski, a Ph.D. student in Rice's Department of Biosciences. "Previous studies in other places have shown that trait diversity is more sensitive to human disturbance than species diversity. Trait diversity can decline more quickly than species diversity, both in cases where species go extinct and where they don't."

There were no mammal extinctions in Braulio Carrillo during the eight years of the study, and Beaudrot, an assistant professor of biosciences at Rice, said the trait analysis revealed a level of functional redundancy that could allow the park's ecosystem to continue functioning even if some of its mammals go extinct in the future.

"It's well-established that national parks preserve species, and our results show national parks can be more resilient than expected, at least over the time period we examined," she said.

Beaudrot said the results are encouraging, but she said it would be a mistake to assume that all national parks are as resilient as Braulio Carrillo.

"This shows what's possible, but the situation could be very different at other parks or over longer time periods," she said. "We need comparable studies for other parks, other protected areas and nonprotected areas.

"This is an area where data science can make a difference," she said. "Some of the data needed to make those comparisons are already available."



  1. Daniel Gorczynski, Lydia Beaudrot. Functional diversity and redundancy of tropical forest mammals over timeBiotropica, 2020; DOI: 10.1111/btp.12844

Variant IV

Ex. 1. Read and translate the text. Pay attention to the vocabulary.

The anatomy of the dog

External anatomy is concerned with the study of such organs as muzzle, dewlap (throat, neck skin), shoulder, elbow, forefeet, croup, leg (thigh and hip), hock, hind feet, withers, stifle, paws, tail.

         Physical characteristics. Like most predatory mammals, the dog has powerful muscles, a cardiovascular system that supports both sprinting and endurance, and teeth for catching, holding, and tearing.

The dog's ancestral skeleton provides the ability to run and leap. Their legs are designed to propel them forward rapidly, leaping as necessary, to chase and overcome prey. Consequently, they have small, tight feet, walking on their 34 toes; their rear legs are fairly rigid and sturdy; the front legs are loose and flexible, with only muscle attaching them to the torso.

Dogs have disconnected shoulder bones that allow a greater stride length for running and leaping. They walk on four toes, front and back, and have vestigial dewclaws (dog thumbs) on their front legs and sometimes on their rear legs.

Sight. Like most mammals, dogs are dichromats and have color vision equivalent to red-green color blindness in humans. Different breeds of dogs have different eye shapes and dimensions, and they also have different retina configurations. Dogs with long noses have a “visual streak” which runs across the width of the retina and gives them a very wide field of excellent vision, while those with short noses have an “area centralis” – a central patch with up to three times the density of nerve endings as the visual streak – giving them detailed sight much more like a human's. Some breeds have a field of vision up to 270°, although broad-headed breeds with short noses have a much narrower field of vision, as low as 180°.

 Hearing. The frequency range of dog hearing is approximately 40 Hz to 60,000 Hz. Dogs detect sounds as low as the 16 to 20 Hz frequency range and above 45 kHz, and in addition have a degree of ear mobility that helps them to rapidly pinpoint the exact location of a sound. Eighteen or more muscles can tilt, rotate and raise or lower a dog's ear. Additionally, a dog can identify a sound's location much faster than a human can, as well as hear sounds up to four times the distance that humans are able to.

Smell. Dogs have nearly 220 million smell-sensitive cells over an area about the size of a pocket handkerchief. Dogs can sense odours at concentrations nearly 100 million times lower than humans can. The percentage of the dog's brain that is devoted to analyzing smells is actually 40 times larger than that of a human. Some dog breeds have been selectively bred for excellence in detecting scents, even compared to their canine brethren.

 Modern dog breeds exhibit a diverse array of fur coats, including dogs without fur. Dog coats vary in texture, color, and markings, and a specialized vocabulary has evolved to describe each characteristic.

Tail. There are many different shapes for dog tails: straight, straight up, sickle, curled, cork-screw. In some breeds, the tail is traditionally docked to avoid injuries. It can happen that some puppies are born with a short tail or no tail in some breeds. (from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)


muzzle [mΛzl] морда

dewlap ['dju:læp] подгрудок

croup [kru:p] зад, круп

hip [hip] бедро, бок

hock [hɒk] поджилки, коленноесухожилие

wither ['wiðə] холка

stifle [staifl] коленныйсустав, коленнаячашка

tosprint [sprint] бежатьнакороткуюдистанциюспринтовать

endurance [in'dju:ərəns] выносливость

ancestral [æn'sestrəl] наследственный, родовой

leap; toleap [li:p] прыжок, скачок; прыгать

tochase ['t∫eis] преследовать, гнаться

toprey [prei] охотиться, ловить

torso ['tɒ:səu] туловище

vestigial [ves'tidʒiəl] остаточный, исчезающий

dewclaw ['dju:klɒ:] рудиментарныйотростокввидепальцаналапе

thumb [ӨΛm] большойпалец

dichromatic ["daikrəu'mætik] двухцветный

configuration [kən"figju'rei∫ən] форма, конфигурация

streak [stri:k] жилка, прожилка

hearing ['hiəriŋ] слух

odour ['əudə] запах

scent [sent] след, запах

canine ['keinain] собачий

fur [fə:] шерсть, шкура

tail [teil] хвост

Ex. 2. Make a review of the article.

Vitamin D deficiency may raise risk of getting COVID-19, study finds

Date: September 3, 2020

Source: University of Chicago Medical Center


In a retrospective study of patients tested for COVID-19, researchers found an association between vitamin D deficiency and the likelihood of becoming infected with the coronavirus.

       "Vitamin D is important to the function of the immune system and vitamin D supplements have previously been shown to lower the risk of viral respiratory tract infections," said David Meltzer, MD, PhD, Chief of Hospital Medicine at UChicago Medicine and lead author of the study. "Our statistical analysis suggests this may be true for the COVID-19 infection."

         The research team looked at 489 U Chicago Medicine patients whose vitamin D level was measured within a year before being tested for COVID-19. Patients who had vitamin D deficiency (< 20ng/ml) that was not treated were almost twice as likely to test positive for the COVID-19 coronavirus compared to patients who had sufficient levels of the vitamin.

         The study, "Association of Vitamin D Status and Other Clinical Characteristics With COVID-19 Test Results," was published Sept. 3 in JAMA Network Open. Findings were previously reported on medRxiv, a preprint server for the health sciences.

           Half of Americans are deficient in Vitamin D, with much higher rates seen in African Americans, Hispanics and individuals living in areas like Chicago where it is difficult to get enough sun exposure in winter.

         "Understanding whether treating Vitamin D deficiency changes COVID-19 risk could be of great importance locally, nationally and globally," Meltzer said. "Vitamin D is inexpensive, generally very safe to take, and can be widely scaled."

            Meltzer and his team emphasize the importance of experimental studies to determine whether vitamin D supplementation can reduce the risk, and potentially severity, of COVID-19. They also highlight the need for studies of what strategies for vitamin D supplementation may be most appropriate in specific populations. They have initiated several clinical trials at UChicago Medicine and with partners locally.



  1. David O. Meltzer, Thomas J. Best, Hui Zhang, Tamara Vokes, Vineet Arora, Julian Solway. Association of Vitamin D Status and Other Clinical Characteristics With COVID-19 Test ResultsJAMA NetworkOpen, 2020; 3 (9): e2019722 DOI: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.19722

Variant V

Ex. 1. Read and translate the text. Pay attention to the vocabulary.

The anatomy of the cattle

          Cattle are raised as livestock for meat (beef and veal), as dairy animals for milk and other dairy products, and as draft animals (pulling carts, plows and the like). Other products include leather and dung for manure or fuel. In some countries such, as India, cattle are sacred. It is estimated that there are 1.3 billion cattle in the world today.

          Cattle have one stomach with four compartments. They are rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum, with the rumen being the largest compartment.The reticulum, the smallest compartment, is known as the “honey comb”. Cattle sometimes consume metal objects which are deposited in the reticulum and irrigation from the metal objects causing hardware disease. The omasum’s main function is to absorb water and nutrients from the digestible feed. The omasum is known as the “many plies”. The abomasums is like the human stomach; this is why it is known as the “true stomach”.

Cattle are ruminants. They have a digestive system that allows use of otherwise indigestible foods by repeatedly regurgitating and rechewing them as “cud”. The cud is then reswallowed and further digested by specialized microorganisms in the rumen. These microbes are primarily responsible for decomposing cellulose and other carbohydrates into volatile fatty acids that cattle use as their primary metabolic fuel. The microbes inside the rumen are also able to synthesize amino acids from nonprotein nitrogenous sources, such as urea and ammonia. As these microbes reproduce in the rumen, older generations die and their carcasses continue on through the digestive tract. These carcasses are then partially digested by the cattle, allowing them to gain a high-quality protein source. These features allow cattle to thrive on grasses and other vegetation. The gestation period for a cow is nine months. A newborn calf weighs 25–45 kg (55 to 99 lb). Breeding stock usually lives to about 15 years (occasionally as much as 25 years). (from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia).


cattle pl. ['kætl] крупныйрогатыйскот

stomach ['stΛmək] желудок

compartment [kəm'pa:pmənt] отдел, отделение

rumen ['ru:men] рубец, первыйотделпреджелудка

reticulum [ri'tikjuləm] сетка, второйотделпреджелудка

omasum [ɒ'mei∫əm] книжка, третийотделпреджелудка

abomasum [æbɒ 'mei∫əm] сычуг, четвертыйотделпреджелудка

hardware [`ha:dwεə] металические изделия

digestible [dai'ʤestəbl] легко усваиваемый

ruminant ['ru:minənt] жвачный, жвачное животное

digestive [dai′ʤestiv] пищеварительный

carbo-hydrate ['ka:bəu'haidreit] углевод

nitrogenous [nai'trɒʤinəs] азотный, азотистый

urea ['ju:əriə] мочевина

ammonia ['əməunjə] аммиак

carcass ['ka:kəs] туша, тело

gestation [ʤes'tei∫n] беременность

stock [stɒk] порода племя


Ex. 2. Make a review of the article.

Shedding light on coral reefs

New research quantifies light availability on coral reef ecosystems


Date:September 11, 2020

Source:Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences

Summary:New research generates the largest characterization of coral reef spectral data to date. These data are an initial step in building a quantitative understanding of reef water clarity. With these data, coral reef scientists can begin to develop models to address fundamental questions about how reefs function, such as how much light reaches the various reef zones or how ecological zonation on reefs might be driven by light absorption.


Earlier this year, Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences (BIOS) senior scientist and coral reef ecologist Eric Hochberg published a paper in the journal Coral Reefs that put numbers to a widely accepted concept in reef science: that materials in seawater (such as phytoplankton, organic matter, or suspended sediment) can affect how much light, as well as the wavelength of light, reaches the seafloor. This, in turn, impacts the ecology of organisms, including corals and algae, that live on the seafloor and rely on that light for photosynthesis.

"Given that reef ecosystems are driven by photosynthesis, there should really be a greater interest in light ecology on reefs," Hochberg said. "In order to do that, you need to have numbers, so this paper is a start in that it generates the first reasonably large data set on water clarity on reefs."

Along with Stacy Peltier, a former research technician at BIOS, and Ste'phaneMaritorena, a researcher at the Earth Research Institute at the University of California at Santa Barbara, Hochberg collected and analyzed 199 water column profiles across the reefs and deep waters of Hawaii and Bermuda using an instrument called a profiling reflectance radiometer (PRR), or "water rocket."

A 2.5 foot-long (0.76 meter) metal tube with fins, the PRR simultaneously measures the spectrum (intensity for each color of the rainbow) of light in the water column coming down from the surface, as well as the spectrum of light reflected up from the bottom. The instrument is tethered to a laptop by a data cable and deployed over the side of a boat, allowing scientists to monitor it in real-time as it drifts to the bottom, collecting data profiles along the way at a rate of 15 measurements per second.

With these numbers, Hochberg and other coral reef scientists can begin to conduct models to address fundamental ecological questions, such as how much light reaches the various reef zones (fore-reef, reef flat, and lagoon) or how ecological zonation on reefs might be driven by light absorption.

For example, while the outer reef area is generally more clear and allows more blue light to penetrate to deeper depths, lagoon areas are more turbid (cloudy) and allow more green light to penetrate to deeper depths. "Different colors of water reach different depths in different zones, which matters for the communities that live on the bottom," Hochberg said. "The pigments that organisms have might change depending on light availability -- not just how much light is available, but what color of light is available."



  1. Eric J. Hochberg, Stacy A. Peltier, Stéphane Maritorena. Trends and variability in spectral diffuse attenuation of coral reef watersCoralReefs, 2020; DOI: 10.1007/s00338-020-01971-1

















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