Английский язык. Составитель Русских.

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Решенные варианты

Вариант1 Вариант2 Вариант3 Вариант4 Вариант5

 

Вариант I >>Решение<<

 

I. Перепишите предложения. Определите какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием –s и какую функцию это окончание выполняет:

а) показатель 3-го лица единственного числа глагола в простом настоящем времени (Present Simple);

б) признак множественного числа имени существительного;

в) показатель притяжательного падежа имени существительного.

Предложения переведите:

  1. The Big Ben clock weights 13,5 tons.
  2. The students’ reports were interesting.
  3. Electricity plays an important part in everyday life.

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения, подчеркните эти формы и переведите предложения:

  1. One of the most famous buildings in England is St. Paul’s Cathedral.
  2. This room is smaller than mine.
  3. The longer is the night, the shorter is the day.
  4. The greater the potential difference, the greater is the electron flow.

 

III. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них глагол сказуемое и определите его видовременную и залоговую форму. Предложения переведите:

  1. 1. Russian Scientists are solving many complex problems.

2. Radio astronomy has given mankind efficient means for penetration into space.

b) 1. The discovery was followed by any intensive research work.

    2. Heart energy is transmitted in two different ways.

    3. The temperature has been maintained at the point of 20 degrees since the beginning of the experiment.

    4. The work is being done now and soon it will be finished.

 

IV. Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните причастия, установите функцию каждого из них, переведите предложения:

  1. Nylon was the first synthetic fibre used in clothing.
  2. The atoms forming our planet are built of negative electrons, positive protons and ordinary neutrons.
  3. This kind of treatment when used makes the metal heart-resistant.
  4. When passing through an electroscope, X-rays cause its discharge.

 

V. Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните в каждом модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения:

  1. Students may use a dictionary while translating the article.
  2. Mass can also be defined as a measure of inertia.
  3. Man-made satellites had to use solar cells as a source of power.

 

VI. Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните инфинитив, установите его функцию. Переведите предложения:

  1. It is necessary for specialists to know a foreign language.
  2. Our scientists were the first to construct and launch the space rocket.
  3. Our idea was to design a new device for automatic control.
  4. To increase the productivity of labor we must use the up-to-date technological methods.

 

VII. Перепишите предложения. Переведите их, обращая внимание на функцию слова one:

  1. One must study hard if one wants to pass one’s exams.
  2. These trucks are too small, they will need bigger ones.

 

VIII. Письменно переведите текст, обращая внимание на пояснения к тексту:

 

Electric current

The current which flows along wires consists of moving electrons. In other words, the flow of moving electrons is the form of the electric current. What can we say about the electron?  We consider the electron to be a minute particle having an electric charge. This charge is negative. As these minute charges travel along a wire, that wire carries an electric current.

In addition to traveling through solids, the electric current can flow through liquids as well and even through gases. In both cases it produces some most important effects to meet industrial requirements. Some liquids such as melted metals, for example, conduct current without any change to themselves. Others, called electrolytes, change greatly when the current passes through them.

The reader certainly remembers that a negatively charged electron moves to the positive end of the wire. It had been supposed to move in the wrong way, from the positive end of the circuit to the negative, long before the electrons were discovered. In fact, when a wire is carrying a current from left to right, the electrons in it are really flowing from right to left.

When the electrons are flowing in one direction only, the current in the wire is direct. The simplest source of power for direct currents is a battery. A battery pushes the electrons in the same direction all the time.

The alternating current flows first in one direction and then in the opposite one. The alternating current used for power and lighting purposes goes through 50 cycles in one second.

One of the great advantages of alternating current is the ease with which power at low voltage can be changed into an almost similar amount of power at high voltage and vice versa.

In fact, at least 90 per cent of electric energy to be generated at present is alternating current. It finds a wide application for lighting, heating, industrial and other purposes.

 

Пояснения к тексту:

in addition to – кроме того, к тому же

as well – также, тоже

in other words – другими словами

to meet requirements – удовлетворять нужды, отвечать требованиям

for example – например

in fact – фактически, на самом деле

in one second – в секунду

vice versa – наоборот

at least – по крайней мере

 

IX. Переведите следующие технические термины и словосочетания:

 

electric current

effects of the electric current

direct current

source of power

alternating current

low (high) voltage

electric charge

(electric) circuit

negative charge

moving electrons

positive charge

 

 

Вариант II   >>В начало<<

 

I. Перепишите предложения. Определите какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием –s и какую функцию это окончание выполняет:

а) показатель 3-го лица единственного числа глагола в простом настоящем времени (Present Simple);

б) признак множественного числа имени существительного;

в) показатель притяжательного падежа имени существительного.

Предложения переведите:

  1. China exports a great variety of goods.
  2. She showed me her mother’s gloves.
  3. The inhabitants of St. Petersburg are fond of their city.

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения, подчеркните эти формы и переведите предложения:

  1. Mathematics is the most difficult subject for me.
  2. The more I thought of that plan, the less I liked it.
  3. Your translation is better than mine.
  4. The shorter the wire, the less it’s resistance to current flow.

 

III. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них глагол сказуемое и определите его видовременную и залоговую форму. Предложения переведите:

  1. 1. Today scientists are still looking for the substance as source of energy.

2. The Mendeleyev system has served for almost 100 years as a key to discovering new elements.

b) 1.  Synthetic rubber products were developed between 1914 and the 1930s.

    2.  The intensity of this process is influenced by many factors.

    3.  The work was being done all the day yesterday.

    4.  The new apparatus had already been installed when the delegation arrived.

 

IV. Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните причастия, установите функцию каждого из них, переведите предложения:

1. Molecular crystals are solids constructed of molecules held together by relatively weak forces.

2. A body moving with a certain velocity carries within itself the kinetic energy of motion.

3. While absorbing the energy of cosmic rays the upper atmosphere becomes radioactive.

4. Unless properly treated the metal must not be applied for space technology.

 

V. Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните в каждом модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения:

  1. Energy can exist in many forms and each form can be transformed into the other.
  2. The computers should become an integral part of organization of industrial processes of all types.
  3. These metal parts had to be subjected to X-ray examination.
  4. The chemists may use the reactor to analyze various substances for their exact composition.

 

VI. Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните инфинитив, установите его функцию и переведите предложения:

  1. The teacher told her students to learn the poem by heart.
  2. Our country was the first state to send a human being into space.
  3. To translate a sentence is to discover its meaning.
  4. People of good will all over the world are uniting to protect the environment.

 

VII. Перепишите предложения. Переведите их, обращая внимание на функцию слова one:

  1. One never knows what may happen.
  2. These texts are too long, we need shorter ones.

 

VIII. Письменно переведите текст, обращая внимание на пояснения к тексту:

 

Electric circuit

The electric circuit is a complete path which carries the current from the source of supply to the load and then carries it again from the load to the source.

The current may pass through solid conductors, liquids, gases, vacuums or any combinations of these. It may flow over transmission lines from the power station, through transformers, cables and switches, through lamps, heaters, motors and so on, back through other switches, transformers and transmission lines to the generator in the power station.

There are many kinds of circuits, such as open circuits, series circuits, parallel circuits and short circuits. If the circuit is broken or, as we generally say, “opened” anywhere, the current stops everywhere. Hence, we break the circuit when we switch off our electric devices. The path along which electrons travel must be complete or no electric power can be supplied to the load from the source. Thus, we close the circuit when we switch on our electric lamp.

When electrical devices are connected so that the current is not divided at any point, they are connected in series. Under such conditions the current is the same in all parts of the circuit. Quite the opposite, the parallel circuit provides two or more paths for the passage of current. We know this circuit to be divided in such a way that part of the current goes through one path and part through another.

We produce a short circuit or, as we sometimes call it, “the short” when we allow the current to return to the source of supply without control and without doing the work.

It is interesting to note that some substances like metals, for example, conduct electricity with ease; on the contrary, others, such as rubber, do not allow it to move freely. Thus, we obtain conductors and insulators.

 

Пояснения к тексту:

to pass through – проходить, протекать через что-либо

hence – следовательно

thus – таким образом

under such conditions – при таких условиях

quite the opposite – совсем наоборот

in such a way – таким образом

for example – например

with ease – легко

on the contrary – наоборот

of course – конечно

e.m.f. – э.д.с.

 

IX. Переведите следующие технические термины и словосочетания:

 

source of supply

electric circuit

transmission line

open circuit

power station

closed circuit

electrical device

series circuit

electric power

parallel circuit

to switch on (off)

short circuit

to conduct electricity

 

 

Вариант III  >>Решение<<

 

I. Перепишите предложения. Определите, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием –s и какую функцию это окончание выполняет:

а) показатель 3-го лица единственного числа глагола в простом настоящем времени (Present Simple);

б) признак множественного числа имени существительного;

в) показатель притяжательного падежа имени существительного.

Предложения переведите:

  1. The lecturer gave several examples of Russian scientists’ achievements.
  2. The foundation of Izhevsk dates back to 1760.
  3. The author mentions this phenomenon in his articles.

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения, подчеркните эти формы и переведите предложения:

  1. The more I studied English, the more I liked it.
  2. My friend is the best student of our group.
  3. Your composition is better, than mine.
  4. The faster the molecules of a substance move, the higher is the temperature of it.

 

 III. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них глагол сказуемое и определите его видовременную и залоговую форму. Предложения переведите:

  1. 1. The reactor is fast becoming a major source of heart and electricity.

2. Scientists have found ways of measuring the sizes and positions of bodies in the Universe.

b) 1. Elements are transformed into other elements in different ways.

    2. The launching of “Sputnik-1” was followed by many achievements in science and engineering.

    3. The explanation of these facts has not been given yet.

    4. Several attempts have been made recently to produce artificial rain.

 

IV. Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните причастия, установите функцию каждого из них, переведите предложения:

  1. These reactions convert hydrogen into helium giving off a great amount of light and heat.
  2. The formula E=mc2 deduced by Einstein is perhaps the most well-known equation in the world.
  3. Soils containing too much sand or clay are off less value in agriculture.
  4. Plastics articles are often difficult to repair if broken.

 

V. Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните в каждом модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения:

  1. Laser light can be used to transmit power of various types.
  2. The application of computers should help in automatic control in industrial processes.
  3. These new materials had to withstand much higher temperatures than metals.
  4. Ethylene gas may be obtained by cracking petroleum.

 

VI. Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните инфинитив, установите его функцию и переведите предложения:

  1. They promised to supply us with the necessary equipment.
  2. The purpose of this book is to describe certain properties of metals.
  3. The experiment to be carried out is very important for our research.
  4. To convert chemical energy into electrical energy we must use an electrical cell.

 

VII. Перепишите предложения. Переведите их, обращая внимание на функцию слова one:

  1. One must know the chemical properties of the atom.
  2. He hasn’t got a radio-set, he wants to buy one.

 

VIII. Письменно переведите текст, обращая внимание на пояснения к тексту:

 

Conductors and Insulators

All substances have some ability to transmit electrons but they differ greatly in the ease with which electrons pass through them. For instance, a copper wire conducts electricity readily, glass conducts so little currents that it is hardly measurable. Substances through which currents easily pass are the conductors. Substances strongly resisting the flow of current are the insulators. An insulator is also called a dielectric.

Almost all metals are good conductors of electricity but we consider silver to be the best conductor of all. Copper comes next, it is followed by aluminium. Copper is our commonly used conductor.

Some liquids also conduct electric currents. They even prove to be good conductors of electricity. Most gases conduct current under proper conditions of pressure and temperature. However, they are not as good electrical conductors as metals.

The most common materials used to resist electric flow are: glass, rubber, porcelain, paper, oil, cotton and silk. Non-ionized clean air is also considered to be a good insulator. It is often used for this purpose in electrical apparatus.

It would be quite wrong to think that conducting materials are the only materials used for the transmission of power. We need both conductors and insulators. We cannot do without the copper wire which conducts the electric power and, acts as a conductor. However, we have to use an insulator to prevent electrical losses.

In the transmission of power we generally employ the best conductors.

 

Пояснения к тексту:

for instance – например

however – однако

it would be quite wrong – было бы неправильно …..

the only – единственный

to do without – обходиться без

in order that – для того, чтобы

 

IX. Переведите следующие технические термины и словосочетания:

 

to conduct electricity

transmission of power

to transmit electrons

electrical loss

electric current

non-ionized air

electric field

conducting material

electric conductor

insulating material

to resist electric flow

 

 

Вариант IV  >>Решение<<

 

I. Перепишите предложения. Определите, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием –s и какую функцию это окончание выполняет:

а) показатель 3-го лица единственного числа глагола в простом настоящем времени (Present Simple);

б) признак множественного числа имени существительного;

в) показатель притяжательного падежа имени существительного.

Предложения переведите:

  1. The first mention of the city on the Moskva-river dates back to 1147.
  2. The doors of the Udmurt Opera and Ballet Theater are always open to the citizens and to the guests of Izhevsk.
  3. Both Russian and Udmurt artists take part in performances of the National Drama Theater.

 

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения, подчеркните эти формы и переведите предложения:

  1. The Volga Hydro-Electric Power Station is the biggest in Europe.
  2. The more experiments we carry out, the more data we obtain.
  3. St. Petersburg is one of the most beautiful cities of Russia.
  4. The greater the number of free electrons in a substance, the better that substance conducts electricity.

 

III. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них глагол сказуемое и определите его видовременную и залоговую форму. Предложения переведите:

  1. 1. Quantum mechanics has greatly influenced on the nuclear theory.

2. The problem of the structure of matter is constantly occupying the minds of many    scientists.

b)  1. Today many polymeric materials are produced on a massive scale.

     2. Many compounds can be decomposed when they are acted upon by different forms of    energy.

     3. The mechanic asked me if the car had been damaged.

      4. Automation is being increasingly used in all branches of industry.

 

IV. Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните причастия, установите функцию каждого из них, переведите предложения:

1. Natural rubber is a thermoplastic material that becomes soft when heated and hard when cooled.

2. The explanation given was not complete.

3. The smallest particle having all the characteristics of an element is called an atom.

4. Having obtained the necessary results they stopped their experimental work.

 

V. Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните в каждом модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения:

  1. Heat can be divided into three different types.
  2. A great number of plastics should find their applications in the electrical industry.
  3. The step-down transformer had to be used in this process.
  4. The existence of an X-ray laser in the future may be possible.

 

VI. Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните инфинитив, установите его функцию и переведите предложения:

  1. To design of new buildings is the work of an architect.
  2. To measures volumes we must know the dimensions of a body.
  3. Our plant was the first to install the automatic equipment.

 

 

VII. Перепишите предложения. Переведите их, обращая внимание на функцию слова one:

1. One understands the importance of electricity when one sees trams, trolley-buses and trains driven by it.

2. This is more important problem than that one.

 

VIII. Письменно переведите текст, обращая внимание на пояснения к тексту:

 

The transformer

A transformer cannot be called a machine for it has no moving parts. We know the transformer to be an apparatus designed for changing voltages and currents by means of magnetic induction.

A two-winding transformer is consist of two coils so arranged that the magnetic lines of force of one coil pass through the other. Transformers is generally used only with alternating current. The alternating current in one coil induces an e.m.f. in the other one because of the alternations in the value of the current in the first coil.

In order to strengthen the magnetic field passing through the coils of a transformer, a closed core of iron is generally used. The iron provides a good path for the magnetic lines of force and nearly all the lines of force from one coil pass through the other. An ideal transformer has no load losses. It means that all the lines of force of one coil pass through the other, and vice versa. However, the ordinary transformer is supposed to have no load losses.

The coil on which the current is impressed on the input side of the transformer is called the primary, while the one from which the induced current is obtained on the output side is called the secondary. In case the secondary has more turns than the primary, the output voltage is larger than the input voltage and the transformer is called a step – up when transformer.

The secondary has fewer turns than the primary the transformer is called a step-down transformer.

If the same number of magnetic lines of force pass through two-coils, the ration of the e.m.f. induced in the two coils is proportional to the ratio of the number of turns in the two coils. In the transformer this means that the e.m.f. in the secondary is to e.m.f. in the primary as the number of turns in the secondary is to the number of turns the primary.

 

Пояснения к тексту:

by means of – при помощи, посредством

because of – из-за, вследствие

in order to – для того, чтобы

it means – это значит

however – однако

in case – в случае, если

the e.m.f. in the secondary is to e.m.f. in the primary – э.д.с. во вторичной так относится к э.д.с. первичной

vice versa – наоборот

the number of – количество

 

IX. Переведите следующие технические термины и словосочетания:

 

alternating voltage

secondary coil of a transformer

magnetic induction

input voltage

magnetic line of force

output voltage

value of current

number of turns in a coil

core of iron

step-up transformer

non-load losses

step-down transformer

primary coil of a transformer

 

 

Вариант V  >>Решение<<

 

I. Перепишите предложения. Определите, какой частью речи являются слова, оформленные окончанием –s и какую функцию это окончание выполняет:

а) показатель 3-го лица единственного числа глагола в простом настоящем времени (Present Simple);

б) признак множественного числа имени существительного;

в) показатель притяжательного падежа имени существительного.

Предложения переведите:

  1. The Izhevsk Mechanical Plant produces different kinds of sport and hunting guns.
  2. A well-known inventor Kalashnikov works at the great amalgamation “Izhmash”.
  3. The student’s hostel is within 5 minutes walk from the Academy.

 

II. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие разные формы сравнения, подчеркните эти формы и переведите предложения:

  1. Automatic devices make labor safer and easier.
  2. The more often you speak to this girl, the more you like her.
  3. English and Spain languages are the most popular at present.
  4. The higher the temperature of a metal, the higher is its resistance.

 

III. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните в каждом из них глагол сказуемое и определите его видовременную и залоговую форму. Предложения переведите:

  1. 1. Astronomers have measured the exact length of the day.

2. The use of consumer electronics is increasing at present.

b)  1. The chemical properties of an element are determined by orbiting electrons.

     2. As a rule one great discovery is generally followed by numerous others.

     3. The papers have not yet been sent.

     4. The construction of the road was being completed when the commission arrived.

 

IV. Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните причастия, установите функцию каждого из них, переведите предложения:

  1. The cloud chamber (камера Вильсона) is the devices used to detect the presence of radioactivity.
  2. Matter consists of one or a number of basics elements occurring in nature.
  3. Engineers can use several modern devices while detecting and measuring radioactivity.
  4. When heated to a certain temperature, this alloy increases in volume.

 

V. Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните в каждом модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения:

  1. We can think of heat as a special form of kinetic energy.
  2. A computer should solve complicated problems many millions of times faster than a mathematician.
  3. New types of plastics had to be obtained for space technology.
  4.  Scientists have to use different special instruments in their research work.

 

VI. Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните инфинитив, установите его функцию и переведите предложения:

1. Russian science was the first to make great contribution to the development of space technology.

2. In order to make interplanetary flights it is necessary to know factors affecting the human organism.

3. The main purpose of the computers is to solve complex problems quickly.

 

VII. Перепишите предложения. Переведите их, обращая внимание на функцию слова one:

  1. One must remember that it is necessary to study English at least an hour a day.
  2. I have only red pencils, I’ll buy some green ones.

 

VIII. Письменно переведите текст, обращая внимание на пояснения к тексту:

 

Electromotive force

The electromotive force (e.m.f.) is the very force that moves the electrons from one point in an electric circuit towards another. The greater the electromotive force, the greater the pressure on the electrons moving through the conductor. A battery or the other source of an electromotive force is simply a device that produces a potential difference necessary for causing electric current to flow along a conductor. We know the current to flow through a conductor in case there is a potential difference between the ends of the conductor.

The e.m.f. is measured and the volt is the unit in which it is measured.

One should distinguish between an electromotive force and a potential difference. A generator or battery is a source of electromotive force, whereas the voltage across a resistance in which a current is flowing is a potential difference or voltage drop. The e.m.f. of a battery or a generator cannot be measured exactly at its terminals since these devices have an internal voltage drop when the circuit is completed.

If an e.m.f. is applied to a path which allows the electrons to pass, they will move toward the point of higher potential, and then current flows in the circuit.

In a closed circuit consisting of a source of e.m.f., of metallic conductors and a device, the electric current is flowing from a plus terminal of a source of e.m.f. to minus terminal, giving up its energy in the form of heat.

When the current flows through a source of e.m.f. in the direction in which the e.m.f. tends to produce current, energy is transferred from the source of e.m.f. to the circuit. Quite the opposite, the current flowing against the e.m.f., energy is transferred from the circuit to the source of e.m.f.

 

Пояснения к тексту:

the very – тот самый

in case – в случае, если

coulomb – кулон

one should distinguish – следует различать

in general – вообще

quite the opposite – наоборот

to give up energy – отдавать энергию

unit – единица (измерения)

 

IX. Переведите следующие технические термины и словосочетания:

 

electric circuit

voltage across a resistance

closed circuit

terminals of a battery

potential difference

to transfer energy

unit of e.m.f.

direction of e.m.f.

voltage drop

to measure the e.m.f.

internal voltage drop

resistance of a conductor

 

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